Using UV Disinfection to Ensure Bio-Security in the Pharmaceutical, Food and Beverage Industries

Introduction
The pharmaceutical and food & beverage industries are unique in that their products are either consumed directly or are used in products that are actively consumed by people. In an increasingly regulated and safety-conscious market, these industries have to meet ever more stringent standards on water quality and bio-security.

It is vital to treat the water used in the manufacturing process to remove toxins, biohazards and any unwanted organic materials, while at the same time not incurring any residual taste, colour or reagents that could affect another part of the downstream process. In these industries the ‘raw’ potable water they source at the start of the process may not be completely free of bio-challenges, as needed for their individual processes, resulting in active growth of microorganisms to harmful levels.

UV disinfection for processing

UV disinfection for processing

UV is ideal for these applications as it is both effective and chemical-free. It eliminates all known pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, yeasts and moulds (and their spores) and is low maintenance and environmentally friendly.

In this article Mark Aston, Hanovia’s Technical Manager, discusses the importance of UV in ensuring bio-security.

The importance of bio-security
Bio-security is very important to understand from both the supplier and customer perspective. It is a fine balancing act between providing an appropriately-sized treatment system on the one hand while ensuring viable cost of ownership on the other.

Where a UV system is required to target a specific bacteria, virus or other bio-hazard, the precise minimum dose needed to achieve the required reduction of that hazard must be well characterised and monitored in delivery. Three general types of system can be used for this task:

  • Very cost-effective systems monitored for a minimum lamp intensity that achieve a minimum delivered dose which is not defined
  • Cost-effective systems that have been referenced to known validations and therefore offer an assured bio-security, but without the absolute cost of a full validation
  • Costly systems that have been fully validated to monitor the precise dose delivered and the power of the system controlled to continually deliver that required dose

How UV disinfection works
UV is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. The specific portion of the UV spectrum between 185-400nm (known as UV-C) has a strong germicidal effect, with peak effectiveness at 265nm. At these wavelengths UV eliminates microorganisms by penetrating their cell membranes and damaging the DNA, making them unable to reproduce and effectively killing them.

A typical UV disinfection system for process water or liquid ingredient consists of a UV lamp housed in a protective quartz sleeve and mounted within a cylindrical stainless steel chamber. The liquid to be treated enters at one end and passes along the entire length of the chamber before exiting at the other end. Virtually any liquid can be effectively treated with UV, including raw mains water, filtered process water, viscous sugar syrups, beverages and effluent.

There are no microorganisms known to be resistant to UV; this includes pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria, Legionella and Cryptosporidium (and its spores, which are resistant to chlorination).

UV dose
The UV dose necessary for microbial deactivation varies from one species to another and is measured in millijoules per square centimetre (mJ/cm2). Values for specific microorganisms have been experimentally established and are used to determine the type and size of UV system required.

The dose received by an organism in a UV treatment system is dependent on four main factors:

1.    The energy output of the UV source
2.    The flow rate of the fluid through the treatment chamber
3.    The transmission value (ability to transmit UV light) of the fluid being treated
4.    The geometry of the treatment chamber

By optimising these criteria, a UV system can be tailored to effectively treat large or small flows, as well as viscous fluids or those containing dissolved solids and high levels of starch or sugar compounds.

UV technologies
There are two main types of UV technology based on the UV lamps used: low pressure and medium pressure. Low pressure lamps have a ‘monochromatic’ UV output (limited to a single wavelength at 254nm), whereas medium pressure lamps have a ‘polychromatic’ UV output (between 185-400nm).

As UV has no residual effect, the best position for a treatment system is immediately prior to the point of use. This ensures incoming microbiological contaminants are destroyed and there is a minimal chance of post-treatment contamination.

UV applications in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries
Direct contact water
Although municipal water supplies are normally free from harmful or pathogenic microorganisms, this should not be assumed. In addition, water from private sources such as natural springs or boreholes could also be contaminated. Any water used as an ingredient, or that comes in direct contact with the product, can therefore be a source of contamination. UV disinfects this water without chemicals or pasteurisation. It also allows the re-use of process water, saving money and improving productivity without risking the quality of the product.

CIP (Clean-in-Place) rinse water
It is essential that the CIP final rinse water used to flush out foreign matter and disinfecting solutions is microbiologically safe. Fully automated UV disinfection systems can be integrated with CIP rinse cycles to ensure final rinse water does not reintroduce microbiological contaminants.

Filter disinfection
Reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are often used to filter process water, but can be a breeding ground for bacteria. UV is an effective way of disinfecting both stored RO and GAC filtered water and has been used in the process industries for many years.

GAC filters are also often used to dechlorinate process water, removing the ‘off’ flavours often associated with chlorine disinfection, meaning the flavour of the final product remains untainted and free from unwanted flavours or odours. Placing UV systems ahead of GAC filters used for dechlorination improves the performance of the filters and results in longer carbon runs, so decreasing operating costs.

As the usual dose for removing free chlorine is 15 to 30 times higher than the normal disinfection dose, an important additional benefit of using UV dechlorination is a high level of UV disinfection, reduction in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and improved overall water quality at point-of-use.

TOC reduction
Short UV wavelengths (below 200nm) are highly effective at breaking down organic molecules present in water, commonly known as Total Organic Carbon (TOC), especially low molecular weight contaminants. This works in two ways: the first method is by direct photolysis, when energy from the UV actually breaks down chemical bonds within the organics; the second method is by the photolysis of water molecules, splitting them to create charged OH- radicals, which also attack the organics.

Cooling media and chiller disinfection
Some meat and dairy products are subject to contamination after heat treatment or cooking. UV provides an excellent way to protect foods from contamination by contact-cooling fluids.

Sugar syrups
Sugar syrups can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. Although syrups with very high sugar content do not support microbial growth, any dormant spores may become active after the syrup has been diluted. Treating the syrup and dilution water with UV prior to use will ensure any dormant microorganisms are deactivated.

Liquid sweeteners
Sucrose-based sweeteners can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. UV systems are available specifically for treating these syrups.

De-aerated liquor
De-aerated liquor is added as part of a high gravity brewing process, often in the packaging operation. This liquor is added directly to the beer so needs to be kept free from contamination by gram negative bacteria, which can cause off-flavours and acidity.

Yeast preparation
The problems associated with yeast preparation in breweries are well recognised and include hazes, altered fermentation and surface membranes on packaged beer. A single cell of Sacchoromyces (var. Turbidans) in 16 million cells of pitching yeast will cause detectable hazes. UV destroys all known yeasts and their spores.

Waste water
Effluent from pharmaceutical, food and beverage facilities can be treated without the use of environmentally hazardous chemicals. This ensures all discharges meet with local environmental regulations. As already mentioned, because process water can be treated and re-used with UV, this also leads to a significant reduction in the amount of waste water produced.

Conclusion
Meeting the increasingly rigorous hygiene standards required in the production of pharmaceutical, food and beverage products is a real challenge. If improvements need to be made to plant and equipment, they need to bring quick returns on the investment and measurable improvements in product quality.

For manufacturers seeking to improve the quality of the end product and to ensure the bio-security of their process, UV is an economic, realistic option. It is already an established method of disinfecting drinking water throughout the world, and is already widely used for high purity applications where water of the highest quality is essential.

UV disinfection systems are easy to install, with minimum disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 9 – 12 months, depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes and can be carried out by general maintenance staff.

Comments (0) »

Are you attending Aquatech Amsterdam?

Then you could win a SteriPEN Handheld Water Purifier!

Are you attending Aquatech Amsterdam?

Are you attending Aquatech Amsterdam?

Just visit the Halma Water booth at 01.204A and answer 3 questions about our 3 UV companies.

If you don’t know the answers don’t worry – we’ll tell you! Then pop your answers into the box and we’ll randomly select the winner at 11am on Friday, November 8th.

The questions:
•    What Aquionics light source is used in its PearlSenseT product?
•    Which Hanovia UV system is validated and designed specifically for the food and beverage industry?
•    Why is Berson’s USEPA-validated InLine UV system the only large-range, ‘really safe’ product currently available?

Please note that only ONE entry is allowed per person – we’ll be checking!

We hope to see you at the show.

Comments Off

Visit Hanovia at Aquatech Amsterdam!

You’ll learn all about our PQ UV disinfection systems

If you’re going to Aquatech in Amsterdam, who not pop by Hanovia’s booth (Hall , stand ), meet the team and learn how the company’s PureLine and PharmaLine PQ (Performance Qualified) UV disinfection systems ensure the complete biosecurity of process water systems.

Hanovia PureLine and PharmaLine PQ UV disinfection system

Hanovia PureLine and PharmaLine PQ UV disinfection system

Tested and approved by independent experts, The PQ range guarantees 99.999% disinfection at its maximum bioassayed dose. A unique feature is its revolutionary, optimised, absolute intensity UV monitor which means the PQ’s controller automatically corrects the dose calculation as UV transmittance varies – without the need for an external UV transmittance monitor.

Product selection is simple with the entire PQ range: all that’s needed to choose the correct model is the application and the required flow – the appropriate model is then simply selected from the appropriate datasheet. Hanovia will have already specified the necessary dose, chamber geometry, lamp type, surface finish, seal materials and connections that are typically required by that application.

You can also contact Hanovia’s Marketing Manager, Gunvinder Bhogal (gunvinder.bhogal@hanovia.com) in advance to arrange a one-to-one meeting with a UV specialist at the show.

Comments Off

Hanovia showing its PureLine PQ UV disinfection system at VIETWATER 2013

Hanovia is showing PureLine PQ (Performance Qualified) UV disinfection system at this year’s VIETWATER exhibition in Saigon (booth E36). Hanovia is exhibiting through its local distributor STD&S Co., Ltd, a specialist in water treatment technology.

Hanovia showing its PureLine PQ UV disinfection system at VIETWATER 2013

Hanovia showing its PureLine PQ UV disinfection system at VIETWATER 2013

Designed specifically to provide performance-qualified UV disinfection of water in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and other high purity applications, the PQ system is guaranteed to provide the ultimate process security with performance validation from authoritative 3rd party. It provides real-time UV monitoring (including self-compensation for varying water quality), validated UV dose calculations and features simple to use controls, all adding up to maximum biosecurity for the production process and peace of mind for the operator.

“By working with our local partner STD&S we’ve already had a number of successful installations across different industries in Vietnam, all with excellent feedback from the customers,” said Xu Ying, Hanovia’s Asia-Pacific sales manager. “We’ve also noticed that, as production processes become more mature, the need for advanced UV technology also grows stronger. VIETWATER is therefore the perfect platform to introduce our state-of-the-art technology to a wider audience,” she added.

Held between October 16-18, VIETWATER is the most influential water industry exhibition in Vietnam and is expected to attract over 50,000 professional visitors from across Southeast Asia.

Comments Off

Hanovia’s Validated PureLine PQ UV Disinfection is a hit at Drinktec

Hanovia’s PureLine PQ UV disinfection range was a hit at this year’s Drinktec exhibition in Munich, with a great deal of interest from visitors.

Hanovia’s Validated PureLine PQ UV Disinfection is a hit at  Drinktec

Hanovia’s Validated PureLine PQ UV Disinfection is a hit at Drinktec

Designed specifically for disinfecting water, it is part of a UV system portfolio for the disinfection of sugar syrups and brines and the de-ozonation of process water in the food, beverage, dairy and brewing industries. The PureLine PQ has also been endorsed by leading manufacturers worldwide, all of whom report that the system is simple to install, easy to use and, above all, that it offers exceptionally high levels of disinfection.

Ensuring biosecurity of water systems, the UV system is tested and approved by independent experts to the requirements of the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM). Benefiting from full flow bioassays conducted by independent engineers across a wide range of operating and water quality conditions, the PureLine PQ guarantees 99.999% disinfection at its maximum bioassayed dose.

Comments Off

Hanovia Showing its PureLine PQ UV Disinfection System at Drinktec

Hanovia is showing its PureLine PQ (Performance Qualified) UV disinfection system at this year’s Drinktec exhibition in Munich.

Hanovia's PureLine PQ UV Disinfection System will be on display at Drinktec

Hanovia’s PureLine PQ UV Disinfection System will be on display at Drinktec

Ensuring biosecurity of water systems, the PureLine PQ is tested and approved by independent experts to the requirements of the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM). Benefiting from full flow bioassays conducted by independent engineers across a wide range of operating and water quality conditions, the PureLine PQ guarantees 99.999% disinfection at its maximum bioassayed dose.

Product selection is simple with the PureLine range: all that’s needed to choose the correct model is the application and the required flow – the appropriate model is then simply selected from the appropriate datasheet. Hanovia will have already specified the necessary dose, chamber geometry, lamp type, surface finish, seal materials and connections that are typically required by that application. Special designs can also be supplied for users who have unusual requirements.

Hanovia will be in Hall A3, stand 250. Come and  relax at ‘Bar UV’, meet the team and learn how the revolutionary, optimised, absolute intensity UV monitor allows the PureLine PQ’s controller to automatically correct the dose calculation as UV transmittance varies – without the need for an external UV transmittance monitor.

You can also contact Hanovia’s Marketing Manager, Gunvinder Bhogal (gunvinder.bhogal@hanovia.com) in advance to arrange a one-to-one meeting with a UV specialist at the show.

Comments Off

Food, Beverage, Pharma and Leisure Industry companies flock to Hanovia’s UV Seminar in Indonesia

Offering ideas and practical advice on using UV for industrial water bio-security, the day proves a real hit

Following the enthusiastic response to Hanovia’s inaugural UV seminar held in Dubai last year, the company hosted its second seminar in Jakarta, Indonesia last month. The event was packed with ideas, practical advice and in-depth analysis on the use of UV for bio-security in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and leisure industries.

Food, Beverage, Pharma and Leisure Industry companies flock to Hanovia’s UV Seminar in Indonesia

Food, Beverage, Pharma and Leisure Industry companies flock to Hanovia’s UV Seminar in Indonesia

The seminar attracted key international and local companies from the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and other industries, including the swimming pool, leisure and hotel industries. The presentations delivered key industry benefits on using UV and the latest industry standards. There were also hands-on demonstrations of the latest UV systems and one-to-one consultation with representatives from Hanovia and PKMG, Hanovia’s representative in Indonesia.

The seminar received an overall 5 Star rating from attendees, with 100% agreement on it being a ‘very informative and educational event’ which provided something for everyone. Sales Director Tim McDougle commented: “Asia, and particularly Indonesia, is a target growth market for all industries, especially food, beverage and pharmaceuticals. By attending this educational seminar all the attendees have learnt about the latest UV developments and UV’s importance in ensuring bio-security for their products.”

Also covered during the day was a demonstration on Hanovia’s Performance Qualified (PQ) UV systems, which have been third party validated specifically for the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. It was shown how these systems offer step-change improvements in process security and ensure better quality water in critical, high purity applications.

Hanovia is already planning the next seminar – stay tuned for more information!

Comments Off

Hanovia Appoints new Technical Director

UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has appointed Mark Aston as its new Technical Director.

Mark Aston, the new Technical Director at Hanovia.

Mark Aston, the new Technical Director at Hanovia.

Mark has over 25 years’ experience in developing profitable products from innovative technology.  He has held senior director roles in engineering companies operating in the electro-optical and bespoke engineering market sectors, including traditional and solid-state lighting technologies.

His role in Hanovia will be to implement new technology and product development programmes as well as consolidate planning for continuous improvement of Hanovia’s unique range of UV treatment products.

Mark has a BSc (Hons) in Physics and Astrophysics, a DSc in Optical Physics and is a Chartered Physicist and Honorary Research Fellow of University College, London.

Comments Off

Korea’s Hite Brewery Company Trusts its Water to Hanovia UV

As part of its environmentally conscious approach to brewing, Korea’s Hite Brewery Company has recently installed 25 Hanovia UV water disinfection systems at its Massan and Gangwan plants. The UV systems ensure water used in the production processes remains free from microbial contamination, ensuring a high quality, pure final product. Seven units are installed at Massan and 18 at Gangwan.

Korea’s Hite Brewery Company Trusts its Water to Hanovia UV

Korea’s Hite Brewery Company Trusts its Water to Hanovia UV

In Massan the UV is used to treat clean-in-place (CIP) water (three units), cooling water injected after the CIP (three units), and activated carbon-filtered water (one unit). At the Gangwan plant three UV units are used to treat water after deaeration and the remaining 15 units treat activated carbon-filtered water.

CIP is used for cleaning the interior surfaces of pipework, vessels, filters and other process equipment. CIP water must be completely free from microbial contamination, otherwise it could infect the whole system. As CIP uses very hot water, pipework and vessels need to be cooled down afterwards and before beer production can recommence. Cooling water also helps flush out the remaining CIP water, which contains acid and caustic soda. The purity of the cooling water is therefore extremely important to prevent any residual contamination.

Activated carbon is commonly used in water treatment for decolouring and deodorisation, due to its strong adsorption properties. This adsorption can also remove residual chlorine from the water, leaving the post-filter water vulnerable to microbial contamination. UV therefore plays a vital role in ensuring the post-filter water is adequately disinfected.

Deaeration removes dissolved oxygen from water prior to the addition of yeast, a key part of the brewing process. Any contamination of the deaeration water could kill the yeast, meaning the whole batch would have to be destroyed. UV is ideal for this step as it is quick acting and effective without producing any unwanted disinfection by-products which could affect the yeast.

“When Hite was considering UV for the first time it looked at a number of UV system suppliers,” commented Ying Xu, Hanovia’s Asia Pacific Sales Manager. “We were selected as our UV systems not only produced the highest microbial reduction rates, but we also offer a comprehensive and cost-effective spare parts and maintenance service. Hite now uses over 45 Hanovia UV systems in its breweries across Korea, including the latest project at Massan and Gangwan.”

“According to the company it also needs to do CIP less frequently, it uses less preservative in the finished product, and the final water has no unwanted residuals, so the taste and colour is not altered in any way. This all adds up to a cleaner, greener process and product,” she added.

Scheme of the water treatment process in Hite Gangwan plant

Scheme of the water treatment process in Hite Gangwan plant

Fig. 1: Scheme of the water treatment process in Hite Gangwan plant

The benefits of UV

Meeting the increasingly rigorous hygiene standards required in the brewing and beverage industries is a real challenge. If improvements need to be made to plant and equipment, they need to bring quick returns on the investment and measurable improvements in product quality.

For manufacturers seeking to improve the quality of the end product, UV is an economic, realistic option. It is an established method of disinfecting drinking water throughout the world, and is also widely used for high purity applications such as pharmaceutical processing and microchip manufacturing, where water of the highest quality is essential.

There are no microorganisms known to be resistant to UV – this includes pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria, Legionella and Cryptosporidium (and its spores, which are resistant to chlorination).

UV disinfection systems are also easy to install, with minimum disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 9 – 12 months, depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes and can be carried out by general maintenance staff.

About the Hite Brewing Company

The Hite Brewing Company produces HITE beer, the best-selling brand in Korea. Its other products are Soju rice wine and mineral water. The company was founded in 1933 as Chosun Breweries and now has over 50% share of the domestic beer market.

Comments (0) »

Dairy Plus in Thailand Replaces Chlorine Disinfection with Hanovia UV

UV offers clean, environmentally-friendly alternative with no after-taste

Dairy Plus Co. Ltd. in Thailand has replaced its chlorine-based disinfection system with medium pressure UV technology from Hanovia. The company decided to reduce high levels of chlorine dosage throughout the process because it was proving ineffective at removing all microorganisms, particularly in the rainy season. It was also producing an after-taste in the product.

Dairy Plus in Thailand Replaces Chlorine Disinfection with Hanovia UV

Dairy Plus in Thailand Replaces Chlorine Disinfection with Hanovia UV

Water to the plant is from two sources: city water and deep well water. The chlorine is only dosed at the raw water feed level, firstly after the clarifier for pre-chlorination and then some low concentration dosing after the softener.

“The incoming city water in particular has a high microbial contact – often as much as 20,000 cfu/ml in the rainy season,” commented Ying Xu, Hanovia’s Asia-Pacific Sales Manager. “At these times, high chlorine doses of even 8ppm were still resulting in microbial concentrations over 6,000 cfu/ml. Something therefore had to be done, and that’s where UV was able to help.

“UV, which is a non-chemical disinfection process, was brought to the attention of Dairy Plus by our local distributor,” continued Miss Xu. “When Dairy Plus saw the advantages of our medium pressure UV systems, which effectively remove microorganisms without any problems of after-taste or re-infection, the company decided to switch from chlorine to UV as its main disinfection method.”

Five Hanovia UV systems are installed at the plant – four duty and one standby. Two units disinfect clean-in-place (CIP) water and two are used for treating dairy mixing water. Each UV system treats up to 130m3/hour of water. As mentioned there are two sources of raw water being used with two feeds coming out of the city water source.

there are two sources of raw water being used with two feeds coming out of the city water source

there are two sources of raw water being used with two feeds coming out of the city water source

City water source: (two feeds)
Feed 1: City water > Clarifier > Sand filter >Carbon Filter>Chlorination>Storage tank
Feed 2: City water >UF Filter>Chlorination>Storage tank

Storage tank (Feed 1 combined with Feed 2) > Softener No.1> Low Dosed Chlorination>Bag Filter>Storage tank of Softener No.1> UV1 > UV2 > CIP (Clean-in-place)

Deep well water: (one feed)
Deep well water > Deion filter > Carbon filter > Chlorination>Storage Tank>Softener No.2>Low Dosed Chlorination>Bag Filter>Storage Tank>UV3 > UV4 > Mixing with final product

Bacteria targeted for reduction include E. coli and many other common water-borne coliforms; the expected level of bacterial reduction is a total plate count of <50 cfu/ml.

“One of the main reasons Dairy Plus selected Hanovia in particular was down to the efforts of our local distributor, who helped resolve a number of initial complications. Our products are also recognised as offering the most advanced technology for high purity food and beverage applications like this,” added Ms Xu.

“Since our systems were installed the customer is very satisfied with their performance, reporting that the units are running well and producing excellent disinfection results. The company is particularly impressed by the low maintenance costs, the high energy output of the systems, and the fact that the frequency of CIP procedures has been dramatically reduced, meaning less down-time of the manufacturing process,” she concluded.

About Dairy Plus
Dairy Plus Co. Ltd. produces and distributes UHT dairy products across Thailand. It is part of the Dutch Mill Group which accounts for 20% of Thailand’s dairy produce output.

Comments (0) »

css.php