SwimLine UVEO treats pool water with up to 60% less power consumption

SwimLineUVEO+Pool_blog

Hanovia’s new Ultraviolet Energy Optimised (UVEO) system for pools does this with a single UV lamp

High resolution photo: http://www.halmapr.com/hanovia/SwimLineUVEO+Pool.jpg

Hanovia’s new SwimLine Ultraviolet Energy Optimised (UVEO) system uses up to 60% less power than conventional UV systems, with just a single UV lamp. It delivers a guaranteed, consistent UV dose with maximum efficiency for swimming pool operators. The system is designed to meet all current standards and guidelines including CE, UL, CSA, USEPA, MAHC, PWTAG and NSF50.

Energy and cost reductions
Designed using Hanovia’s 90 years of experience in UV treatment, the new SwimLine UVEO takes advantage of an optimised hydraulic design to provide up to 60% improvement in the treatment capacity over conventional UV systems. This means reduced running costs for 24/7 applications such as swimming pools without compromising on bio-security or chloramine control.

A prime benefit is that treatment is performed with just a single UV lamp, eliminating the need to install a bigger system with multiple lamps. This saves on upfront capital costs and lifetime spares costs.

The system also utilises an electronic ballast with ‘stepless’ power control, automatically adjusting power to continuously match pool operating conditions.

Designed for pools
The SwimLine UVEO is optimised specifically for pool bio-safety and ensures chlorine-resistant organisms, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are controlled with the optimum UV dose, compliant with both local country standards and the emerging US Model Aquatic Health Code requirements.

The optimised medium pressure UV lamp continues to provide the excellent chloramine reduction for which Hanovia’s traditional pool products are renowned. This ensures effective control of these unpleasant by-products of chlorine dosing which are responsible for the typical ‘chlorine smell’, red, stinging eyes and skin irritations. Controlling chloramines also delivers high quality pool water, reduced corrosion of metal structures and a healthier environment for bathers.

Easy maintenance
The system comes with Hanovia’s patented ‘UVGuard’, which allows safe checking of the UV sensor (performance monitoring instrument) using a unique ‘eyelid shutter’ design, which protects the operator from exposure to UV light.

The SwimLine UVEO comes in a range of sizes and treatment capacities to meet typical pool sizes. It is designed for easy installation into existing pipework, matching pipe velocities and turnover rates in all pools. It is also fitted with an internal auto-wiper which maintains UV output efficiency by regularly cleaning the quartz sleeve housing the UV lamp. Lamp replacement is also quick and easy, with the system designed to allow easy access, even in small plant rooms.

Caring for your pool
Protected by Hanovia’s ‘UVCare’ aftersales support package, users can be sure that the system is maintained to the highest standards throughout its working life. From leisure centres to world class competition pools, the key concerns of operators include making sure bathers are not put at risk, that pool water is clean and clear and that energy costs are kept to a minimum. SwimLine UVEO and UVCare meet all of these requirements.

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Creating a Heavenly Spa with UV Disinfection

Westin Resort’s ‘Heavenly Spa’ in Bali chooses Hanovia UV technology

Located in Nusa Dua, Bali, Westin Resort’s luxurious Heavenly Spa includes wet treatment rooms with steam showers, a hair salon, an indoor lounge and separate male and female wet areas with salt saunas, aroma steam baths and vitality pools.

HeaventlySpa_Bali_blog

As the water treatment regime in spas is so exacting, ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is often used as the cleanest technology available. Not only does UV destroy harmful microorganisms in the water, enabling controlled chlorination that avoids adverse dosing, it also breaks down the irritant chloramine by-products of the treatment process. This ensures the air around the spa is clear, without the industrial ‘chlorine’ smell often associated with heavily chlorinated water.

Based on extensive experience providing UV systems to high-end spas, Hanovia was selected by Barr+Wray, the main contractor, to provide the UV disinfection system for the Heavenly Spa. Barr+Wray also installed equipment for the pool plant and pool attractions, as well as the salt saunas, aroma steam baths and VIP steam showers. The Hanovia system features an automated wiping system that cleans the system and prevents the build-up of residues on the UV lamp.

Adding UV to the spa’s water treatment regime not only gets rid of harmful chlorine by-products but also saves money on the reduction of chlorine used. This reduction in chlorine usage is a real benefit, as it potentially reduces costs and makes the backwash water discharge more environmentally friendly. Added to that, UV-treated water is demonstrably clearer and there is less wear and tear to building structures from unwanted chlorine by-products.

Completed in December 2013, the Heavenly Spa is already winning awards. It was voted Country Winner in the Best Luxury Wellness Spa in the 2014 World Luxury Hotel Awards and also came in as a finalist in the Best Luxury Day Spa category.

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England’s Top Football Clubs Get The Hanovia UV Treatment

Hydrotherapy pools using UV to keep water pure & athletes healthy

Some of England’s most famous football clubs are using Hanovia’s UV disinfection technology to purify their hydrotherapy pools. Water of exceptionally high quality is required as the clubs cannot afford for their players to fall ill as a result of water-borne pathogens like Cryptosporidium or Giardia.

Some of England’s most famous football clubs are using Hanovia’s UV disinfection technology to purify their hydrotherapy pools.

Some of England’s most famous football clubs are using Hanovia’s UV disinfection technology to purify their hydrotherapy pools.

English football is a multi-million pound business with a huge global audience. The key focus is centred on the success of the football clubs and their players. For every club it is essential their stars remain fit throughout the long, demanding season, so no expense is spared in providing world class facilities to make sure they perform at optimum levels. This includes the use of state-of-the-art hydrotherapy facilities to treat muscle injuries and accelerate recovery times.

James Hadley, Hanovia’s UK Sales Manager, says: “Bacteria like Cryptosporidium are highly resistant to chlorine and can’t be eliminated by using the chemical on its own – an additional step is required to ensure their complete removal. UV is now one of the most popular methods of destroying them. In addition, chloramines – the unpleasant by-products of chlorination – can be effectively removed with UV.

“UV technology is an extremely important part of the water treatment system for many top English clubs’ hydrotherapy pools”

“UV technology is therefore becoming an extremely important part of the water treatment system for many top English clubs’ hydrotherapy pools. By being effective against chlorine resistant micro-organisms and by controlling chloramines, UV is a double-edged sword that has led to Hanovia’s UV systems being installed in many hydrotherapy and swimming pools across the world.

“Not only that, UV is much cheaper and safer than the other non-chlorine treatment method, ozonation. The Victoria Park Swimming Pool Complex in Hong Kong has installed over 20 of our UV systems and they report that, compared to ozone treatment, UV is up to five times cheaper to maintain and takes up only 1/10 of the space.

UV technology is an extremely important part of the water treatment system for many top English clubs’ hydrotherapy pools

UV technology is an extremely important part of the water treatment system for many top English clubs’ hydrotherapy pools

“Running costs are being scrutinized much more by football clubs, as all of them are trying to maximize their profits and minimise unnecessary wastage. By adding UV to their water treatment regimes, clubs are not only getting rid of harmful chlorine by-products, they are also saving money and reducing the amount of chlorine used,” concluded James.

Hanovia UV installations outside the footballing world
Hanovia’s UV systems are already widely used in pools and spas around the globe, from the UK to Australia. One of the most prominent UK installations is Nirvana Spa in Berkshire. Widely regarded as one of the UK’s most prestigious spa facilities, Nirvana has nine pools, each filled with pure spring water drawn from over 200 metres beneath the ground. Each pool is treated with a Hanovia UV system, including the “Celestial” floatation pool, the UK’s largest hydrotherapy pool containing salt imported from Israel’s Dead Sea.

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Hong Kong’s Victoria Park Swimming Pool Complex Using Hanovia UV to Treat Indoor Pools and Rainwater

Ease of use, low running costs and compact size all deciding factors

The Victoria Park Swimming Pool Complex (VPSPC) in Hong Kong has recently installed 21 Hanovia UV disinfection systems to treat the water in three of its indoor pools and to disinfect harvested rainwater. The UV systems were installed by Jardine Engineering Corp, with the help of SmarTech HVAC & Engineering, Hanovia’s local distributor.

The main 50 metre competition pool, a 30 metre multi-purpose pool and an indoor Jacuzzi are now all treated with UV. In addition, recycled rainwater used for cleaning floors and toilet flushing is treated with UV prior to use.

“UV is the ideal technology for swimming pool water treatment”

“This is a very significant project for us and one that shows just what our UV technology is capable of,” commented Ms Ying Xu, Hanovia’s Asia-Pacific Manager. “VPSPC chose Hanovia because, in their opinion, it’s the ideal technology for swimming pool water treatment. UV not only destroys microorganisms but also removes chloramines, resulting in crystal clear water with no accompanying ‘chlorine’ smell.

Hong Kong’s Victoria Park Swimming Pool Complex

Hong Kong’s Victoria Park Swimming Pool Complex

“Our UV systems can also be sized to handle a huge variety of flow rates, from as high as 1700m3/hour in the main competition pool to the small flow rates required for rainwater treatment – this was an essential requirement. I think the final clincher was our fantastic reputation in the swimming pool industry and the hard work of SmarTech.”

Chloramines (also known as combined chlorine) are the unpleasant by-products associated with chlorinated pools; they lie as a vapour over the pool surface and cause eye and skin irritations and have a strong odour which is unpleasant for both bathers and staff. Chloramines not only put people off visiting indoor pools – they can also be a health risk if inhaled regularly. A recent paper in the European Respiratory Journal linked high levels of asthma in children with swimming in outdoor chlorinated pools.

Chloramines are also highly corrosive and are known to cause significant damage to the physical structures of some indoor pools, which can raise safety concerns. Medium pressure UV eliminates the problem of chloramines almost entirely due to its wide wavelength spectrum, which destroys mono-, di- and tri-chloramines. A reduction in chloramines also means less wear and tear on the building and less maintenance and repair bills – as well as a safer building.

UV is ideal as not only does it act as a powerful disinfectant in its own right – minimising the use of chlorine – it also destroys any chloramines produced as a result of the residual chlorination, ensuring a healthier environment for swimmers and staff alike. Less chloramines also means lower water bills as less water is needed to dilute and flush the pool. UV is also a clean technology, with no by-products of its own.

Another major benefit of Hanovia’s UV systems is power switching, which optimises power use only when it’s actually needed. This can have a significant impact on a pool operator’s energy bill.

“Compared to ozone treatment, UV is up to five times cheaper to maintain”

According to the VPSPC management, the UV systems are easy to use and are low-maintenance. “The control system is simple and stable, meaning we don’t need to actively monitor the performance of the UV systems,” said a spokesperson. “We chose Hanovia on the recommendation of other users and have been very pleased with the technology. We do an annual clean of each UV chamber, but this hardly seems necessary as each one remains almost like new. It is also extremely compact.” Compared to ozone treatment, UV is up to five times cheaper to maintain and requires only 1/10 of the space.

Hanovia UV disinfection systems treating indoor pools and rainwater in Hong Kong

Hanovia UV disinfection systems treating indoor pools and rainwater in Hong Kong

The use of UV for rainwater treatment is an interesting and growing application for the technology, particularly in areas of relatively high rainfall such as Hong Kong. Capturing this rain for reuse not only makes environmental sense – freeing up municipal water supplies for domestic and industrial users – it also makes financial sense for the local municipality.

Of the 21 Hanovia UV systems in use at VPSPC, 19 are medium pressure SwimLine systems: eight for the main swimming pool (seven duty, one standby), 11 for the diving pool (10 duty, one standby) and one for the Jacuzzi. One low pressure AF3 UV system is used for rainwater treatment. All the UV systems are located after sand filters in the pool and rainwater treatment processes.

Worldwide applications
Hanovia’s UV systems are used by indoor pool operators around the world, including the UK’s biggest theme park, Alton Towers, where UV treats all the indoor pools; Nirvana Spa, one of the UK’s most prestigious luxury spas; and the Calvary Rehabilitation Hospital in Adelaide, Australia, where Hanovia UV has transformed the water and air quality for the indoor hydrotherapy pool.

The growth of UV
UV is now a well-established method of swimming pool water treatment, from hydrotherapy pools like that at the Calvary Rehabilitation Hospital, to full-sized competition pools. This growth in popularity has been largely due to UV’s reliability and ease of use. Another major factor is the reduced reliance on traditional chemical treatments it affords, particularly chlorine. UV is also highly effective at destroying chlorine-resistant microorganisms like Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Finally – UV saves pool operators money.

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Food, Beverage, Pharma and Leisure Industry companies flock to Hanovia’s UV Seminar in Indonesia

Offering ideas and practical advice on using UV for industrial water bio-security, the day proves a real hit

Following the enthusiastic response to Hanovia’s inaugural UV seminar held in Dubai last year, the company hosted its second seminar in Jakarta, Indonesia last month. The event was packed with ideas, practical advice and in-depth analysis on the use of UV for bio-security in the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and leisure industries.

Food, Beverage, Pharma and Leisure Industry companies flock to Hanovia’s UV Seminar in Indonesia

Food, Beverage, Pharma and Leisure Industry companies flock to Hanovia’s UV Seminar in Indonesia

The seminar attracted key international and local companies from the food, beverage, pharmaceutical and other industries, including the swimming pool, leisure and hotel industries. The presentations delivered key industry benefits on using UV and the latest industry standards. There were also hands-on demonstrations of the latest UV systems and one-to-one consultation with representatives from Hanovia and PKMG, Hanovia’s representative in Indonesia.

The seminar received an overall 5 Star rating from attendees, with 100% agreement on it being a ‘very informative and educational event’ which provided something for everyone. Sales Director Tim McDougle commented: “Asia, and particularly Indonesia, is a target growth market for all industries, especially food, beverage and pharmaceuticals. By attending this educational seminar all the attendees have learnt about the latest UV developments and UV’s importance in ensuring bio-security for their products.”

Also covered during the day was a demonstration on Hanovia’s Performance Qualified (PQ) UV systems, which have been third party validated specifically for the food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries. It was shown how these systems offer step-change improvements in process security and ensure better quality water in critical, high purity applications.

Hanovia is already planning the next seminar – stay tuned for more information!

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Hanovia Appoints new Technical Director

UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has appointed Mark Aston as its new Technical Director.

Mark Aston, the new Technical Director at Hanovia.

Mark Aston, the new Technical Director at Hanovia.

Mark has over 25 years’ experience in developing profitable products from innovative technology.  He has held senior director roles in engineering companies operating in the electro-optical and bespoke engineering market sectors, including traditional and solid-state lighting technologies.

His role in Hanovia will be to implement new technology and product development programmes as well as consolidate planning for continuous improvement of Hanovia’s unique range of UV treatment products.

Mark has a BSc (Hons) in Physics and Astrophysics, a DSc in Optical Physics and is a Chartered Physicist and Honorary Research Fellow of University College, London.

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Hanovia planning second UV industry seminar – this time in Indonesia

Indonesia event follows on from successful inaugural Dubai seminar

UV disinfection specialist Hanovia Limited is hosting its second UV industry seminar with ideas and practical advice on the use of UV in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical, pools and leisure and building services industries.

To be held on April 11 in Jakarta, Indonesia, it follows on from the enthusiastic response to the inaugural seminar held in Dubai last year.

With talks by industry leaders and in-house Hanovia staff visitors will hear directly from experts about how to make significant improvements to their water disinfection processes by exploiting clean UV technology.

There will also be hands-on demonstrations of the latest UV systems and one-to-one consultation with specialist speakers and representatives from PKMG, an Indonesian engineer and supplier of process water technology.

In particular, the seminar will discuss performance qualified (PQ) UV systems developed specifically for the food and beverage and pharmaceutical industries. Delegates will learn how these systems offer step-change improvements in process security and ensure better quality water in critical, high purity applications.

Date: April 11, 2013
Location: Hotel Mulia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Agenda and registration form: http://www.hanovia.com/indonesia-seminar-registration/#reg-form

For more information please contact:
Mr Gunvinder Bhogal, Marketing Manager
Hanovia Limited
Tel: +44 (0)1753 515300
E-mail: gunvinder.bhogal@hanovia.com
Website: www.hanovia.com

Ms Ying Xu, Asia-Pacific Manager
Hanovia Limited
Tel: +86 (0)10 6588 6200, Mobile: +86 1370 1235137
E-mail: ying.xu@hanovia.com
Website: www.hanovia.com

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Hanovia’s Dubai SwimLine Launch a Huge Success

Hanovia successfully launched its SwimLine and other UV disinfection systems at an event in Dubai last month. Over 50 visitors from the region, including journalists and representatives from some of the world’s leading hotel chains, attended the day-long event, where they learnt the benefits of using UV to treat swimming pools and spas.

Hanovia’s Dubai SwimLine Launch a Huge Success

Hanovia’s Dubai SwimLine Launch a Huge Success

With over 85 years’ experience in UV technology, Hanovia used its knowledge and experience to educate the attendees on the real benefits of using UV for treating their pool water. The event was also supported by a third party consultant, Ian Nicks, from the Pool water Treatment Advisory Group (PWTAG). Ian was able to provide a more independent view on the benefits of UV for pool operators.

Hanovia’s SwimLine UV system is a low footprint, low maintenance and, more importantly, an environmentally friendly way of ensuring pool and spa water is free from harmful microorganisms. It offers twofold protection for pool operators: water disinfection and the removal of combined chlorine. More importantly, because SwimLine dramatically reduces the amount of chlorine required, there is correspondingly less backwashing and dilution, less waste and notably purer water. The air around the pool is also much more pleasant – a significant factor for enclosed, indoor pools.

Attendees scored the event 5 out of 6 in a post-event survey, with all saying it was well worth attending. Comments included, “A valuable seminar for maintaining pools, and good hosts” (Hi-Tech Water Technologies LLC, Dubai) and “6 out of 6” (Le Meridian, Dubai).

The day was such a success that Hanovia is planning another one in 2013, with the location still to be confirmed. The event co-hosted by Hanovia’s local distributor, Water & Environmental Technologies.

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Exclusive UK spa relies on Hanovia UV to keep its spring water pure

Nine pools, including the UK’s largest floatation pool, now use Hanovia UV

Hanovia UV disinfection systems are now treating nine pools, including the UK’s largest floatation pool, at the exclusive Nirvana Spa outside London. Nirvana Spa is one of the UK’s most prestigious spa facilities, frequented by elite athletes and celebrities. Hanovia UV systems are also used by many of the world’s leading hotel groups, sports academies and hydrotherapy centres of excellence.

Neil Phelps, Nirvana’s Maintenance Manager, with a Hanovia UV system at Nirvana Spa in Berkshire

Neil Phelps, Nirvana’s Maintenance Manager, with a Hanovia UV system at Nirvana Spa in Berkshire

(Photo caption: Neil Phelps, Nirvana’s Maintenance Manager, with a Hanovia UV system at Nirvana Spa in Berkshire)

“With water quality legislation for the global pool and spa industry – including in Middle East – becoming more stringent, operators need to know their water treatment regime is up to the task,” comments Hanovia’s Managing Director John Ryan. “We designed the SwimLine with one thing in mind – to ensure pool and spa water meets these exacting standards. It is suitable for all relevant markets, including hotel pools and spas, leisure centres and hydrotherapy pools hospitals.”

The Celestial Floatation Pool at Nirvana Spa in Berkshire uses Hanovia UV technology to treat its water.

The Celestial Floatation Pool at Nirvana Spa in Berkshire uses Hanovia UV technology to treat its water.

(Photo caption:  The Celestial Floatation Pool at Nirvana Spa in Berkshire)

There are currently nine pools at Nirvana Spa, each filled with pure spring water drawn from over 200 metres beneath the ground. Each pool is treated with its own Hanovia UV system.

“The Celestial Floatation Pool, the UK’s largest hydrotherapy pool, is unusual as it contains salt imported from the Dead Sea,” commented Neil Phelps, Nirvana’s Maintenance Manager. “We match the specific gravity of the Dead Sea, and this high salt concentration makes the water very buoyant and floating in the pool is perfect for spinal alignment. Bathers in the warm (35 ºC), mineral-rich waters are removed from most external stimuli and a gentle current gives the sensation of floating in space. This provides both mental and physical benefits and many sports men and women, including International rugby players, skiers and rowers, use the pool to enhance their performance and reduce their injury time.”

“UV allows us to run the chlorine at the right levels and there is no way we’d be able to achieve the level of water purity without it.  As the water temperature is kept at a constant 35°C, which is higher than in leisure pools, there is an increased risk of infection from microorganisms such as bacteria and moulds which thrive in warm water. Microbiological control is a key aspect of the water quality and UV plays an important part in that control and bacteriological checks are carried out regularly,” added Neil.

UV is highly effective at killing any bacteria, viruses or moulds in the water, including Cryptosporidium and its spores, which are chlorine-resistant. Another major advantage of UV is that it considerably reduces the amount of chlorine required to maintain hygiene levels. This reduces problems associated with chlorine by-products such as chloramines, which are formed when free chlorine reacts with sweat or urine in pool water. Trichloramines in particular are powerful irritants which are responsible for eye and respiratory complaints and the unpleasant ‘chlorine smell’ commonly associated with indoor pools.

Each UV system installed at Nirvana Spa consists of a stainless steel chamber containing a high intensity Hanovia UVLux lamp, which is housed in a special quartz sleeve to protect it from the pool water. The chambers are carefully designed by Hanovia engineers using advanced flow calculation methods, ensuring maximum performance by making sure all the water flowing through the chambers receives the correct UV dose. As an alternative to other water treatment systems such as ozone, UV is a cost-effective and low maintenance technology.

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UV disinfection technology – the applications just keep on growing

Introduction

Ultraviolet (UV) technology was originally used to ensure the adequate disinfection of municipal drinking water. Since its introduction over 40 years’ ago it is now applied globally for disinfection, TOC (total organic carbon) reduction, de-ozonation and de-chlorination of water in many different industries, including food and beverage industries, pharmaceutical manufacturing, aquaculture, pools and leisure, shipping and oil drilling.

UV kills all known spoilage microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, yeasts and moulds (and their spores). It is a low maintenance, environmentally friendly technology which eliminates the need for chemical treatment while ensuring high levels of disinfection.

In this article Jon Ryan, Managing Director of Hanovia Limited, discusses the myriad applications where UV is now routinely used on a daily basis worldwide.

How UV disinfection works

UV is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. The specific portion of the UV spectrum between 185-400nm (known as UV-C) has a strong germicidal effect, with peak effectiveness at 265nm. At these wavelengths UV eliminates microorganisms by penetrating their cell membranes and damaging the DNA, making them unable to reproduce and effectively killing them.

A typical UV disinfection system consists of a UV lamp housed in a protective quartz sleeve and mounted within a cylindrical stainless steel chamber. The liquid to be treated enters at one end and passes along the entire length of the chamber before exiting at the other end. Virtually any liquid can be effectively treated with UV, including water, sugar syrups, beverages and effluent.

There are no microorganisms known to be resistant to UV – this includes pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria, Legionella and Cryptosporidium (and its spores, which are resistant to chlorination). The UV dose necessary for deactivation varies from one species to another and is measured in millijoules per square centimetre (mJ/cm2). Values for specific microorganisms have been experimentally established and are used to determine the type and size of UV system required.

The dose received by an organism in a UV treatment system is dependent on four main factors:

1.    The energy output of the UV source
2.    The flow rate of the fluid through the treatment chamber
3.    The transmission value (ability to transmit UV light) of the fluid being treated
4.    The geometry of the treatment chamber

By optimising these criteria, a UV system can be tailored to effectively treat large or small flows, as well as viscous fluids or those containing dissolved solids and high levels of starch or sugar compounds.

There are two main types of UV technology based on the type of UV lamps used: low pressure and medium pressure. Low pressure lamps have a monochromatic UV output (limited to a single wavelength at 254nm), whereas medium pressure lamps have a polychromatic UV output (with an output between 185-400nm).

Benefits of UV Disinfection

UV disinfection has many advantages over alternative methods. Unlike chemical treatment, UV does not introduce toxins or residues into process water and does not alter the chemical composition, taste, odour or pH of the fluid being disinfected.

UV treatment can be used for primary water disinfection or as a back-up for other water purification methods such as carbon filtration, reverse osmosis or pasteurisation. Since UV disinfection does not rely on a chemical residual, the location(s) of the units should be carefully considered for optimum performance.

UV applications

Food, beverage and brewing industries

Disinfection of direct contact water
Although municipal water supplies are normally free from harmful or pathogenic microorganisms, this should not be assumed. In addition, water from private sources such as natural springs could also be contaminated. Any water used as an ingredient, or coming in direct contact with the product, can therefore be a source of contamination. UV disinfects this water without chemicals or pasteurisation. It also allows the re-use of process water, saving money and improving productivity without risking the quality of the product.

CIP (Clean-in-Place) rinse water
It is essential that the CIP final rinse water used to flush out foreign matter and disinfecting solutions is microbiologically safe. Fully automated UV disinfection systems can be integrated with CIP rinse cycles to ensure final rinse water does not reintroduce microbiological contaminants. Because of their high energy density, MP lamps are less affected by any sudden changes in the temperature of the CIP water than a LP lamp.

Filter disinfection
Reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are often used to filter process water, but can be a breeding ground for bacteria. UV is an effective way of disinfecting both stored RO and GAC filtered water and has been used in the process industries for many years.

Cooling media and chiller disinfection
Some meat and dairy products are subject to contamination after heat treatment or cooking. UV provides an excellent way to protect foods from contamination by contact-cooling fluids.

Sugar syrups
Sugar syrups can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. Although syrups with very high sugar content do not support microbial growth, any dormant spores may become active after the syrup has been diluted. Treating the syrup and dilution water with UV prior to use will ensure any dormant microorganisms are deactivated.

Liquid sweeteners
Sucrose-based sweeteners can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. UV systems are available specifically for treating these syrups.

De-aerated liquor
De-aerated liquor is added as part of a high gravity brewing process, often in the packaging operation. This liquor is added directly to the beer so needs to be kept free from contamination by gram negative bacteria, which can cause off-flavours and acidity.

Yeast preparation
The problems associated with yeast preparation in breweries are well recognised and include hazes, altered fermentation and surface membranes on packaged beer. A single cell of Sacchoromyces (var. Turbidans) in 16 million cells of pitching yeast will cause detectable hazes. UV destroys all known yeasts and their spores.

Waste water
As part of a multi-barrier process, including filtration, UV can destroy microorganisms in the effluent from food and beverage facilities prior to discharge. As UV reduces reliance on hazardous chemicals, it also ensures all discharges meet with local environmental regulations.

Bromates and bottled water – UV as an alternative to ozonation

Nongfu Spring Co. Ltd., one of China’s leading producers of bottled water and beverages, has recently opted to use UV for its production plants across China. This is a major milestone in the bottled water industry – particularly in China – because presently in that country virtually all bottled water is disinfected using ozone. And around the world ozone is still the disinfection method of choice for many producers.

The decision by Nongfu Spring to opt for UV was driven by a number of reasons, not least of which was concerns about ozonation by-products such as bromate. In fact, Hanovia has noticed that more and more bottled water and soft drinks producers are now looking for ozone alternatives, and enquiries about UV are on the increase.

Bromide ions occur naturally in many spring waters and on their own pose no problem. However, the presence of ozone can cause conversion of bromide into bromate, with the consequent potential for consumer health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists bromate as a carcinogenic substance and recommends its maximum limit in mineral water be set at 0.01mg/l (10ppb). In July 2008 the Chinese General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ), recommended in a revised draft national standard for drinking water and mineral water that a maximum limit for bromate in bottled water be in line the WHO guidelines. This limit has now been in force since October 2009.

Pharmaceutical industry

Disinfection
As in the food and beverage industries, UV is used to disinfect water used in the manufacturing process, whether it is for direct product make-up or for rinsing and washing process equipment.

TOC reduction
Short UV wavelengths (below 200nm) are highly effective at breaking down organic molecules present in water, especially low molecular weight contaminants. The process works in two ways: the first method is by direct photolysis, when energy from the UV actually breaks down chemical bonds within the organics; the second method is by the photolysis of water molecules, splitting them to create charged OH- radicals, which also attack the organics.

Dechlorination
To date, the two most commonly used methods of chlorine removal have been granular activated carbon (GAC) filters or the addition of neutralising chemicals such as sodium bisulphite and sodium metabisulphite. Both of these methods have their advantages, but they also have a number of significant drawbacks. GAC filters, because of their porous structure and nutrient-rich environment, can become a breeding ground for bacteria. Dechlorination chemicals such as sodium bisulphite, which are usually injected just in front of RO membranes, can also act as incubators for bacteria, causing biofouling of the membranes. In addition, these chemicals are hazardous to handle and there is a danger of over- or under-dosing due to human error.

UV is now becoming increasingly popular as an effective alternative method of dechlorination. It has none of the drawbacks of GAC or neutralising chemicals, while effectively reducing both free chlorine and combined chlorine compounds (chloramines) into easily removed by-products.

Aquaculture

Increased water extraction and lowered water quality can result in increased outbreaks of viral and bacterial fish diseases in the aquaculture industry. Due to the intensive nature of fish farming, fish stock is also highly susceptible to infection from natural fish populations in the water feeding the farm. To break the infection cycle between fish farms and natural fish populations, a disinfection system is needed to treat water entering and circulating within fish farms.

UV is ideally suited for these applications as it uses no chemicals and does not create by-products which would harm the fish stock, or other aquatic life, on discharge. Unlike other treatment methods, UV avoids the expense of complex monitoring systems involved in adding and removing chemicals before the water reaches the fish. In addition, it does not alter the pH of the water. Indeed, UV is the most economical disinfection technique that can be used in fish aquaculture. Applications include treatment of water in hatcheries, shell-fish purging tanks and fry rearing tanks, and recirculation water in marine parks and aquaria.

Swimming pools and spas

UV is now a well-established method of swimming pool water treatment, from hydrotherapy spas to full-sized competition pools. This growth in popularity has been largely due to UV’s reliability and ease of use. Another major factor is the reduced reliance on traditional chemical treatments it affords, particularly chlorine. UV is also highly effective at destroying chlorine-resistant microorganisms like Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

Some of the more unpleasant by-products of chlorination are chloramines, formed when chlorine reacts with sweat or urine in pool water. Trichloramines in particular are powerful irritants which are responsible for eye and respiratory complaints and the unpleasant smells commonly associated with indoor public pools. They are also corrosive and in time can lead to damage to pool buildings and structures such as ventilation ducts.

Another major benefit of UV is that it significantly reduces the need for backwashing and dilution, saving hundreds of pounds a month for pool operators.

Link between chloramines and asthma

A recent study found an increased incidence of asthma in children who swam regularly in chlorinated pools. In some cases the damage was equivalent to that found in heavy smokers. Even people sitting at the sides of pools, such as lifeguards and instructors, were found to be at risk.

The symptoms are caused, the researchers believe, by chloramines – particularly trichloramines. The problem is potentially so serious that the study’s authors suggested pool operators should seriously consider alternatives to chlorine-based disinfection. They also recommended better ventilation to help remove chloramine-laden air from pool surroundings, improved hygiene practices by bathers themselves – such as showering before swimming – and the regular renewal of pool water.

While further research is needed, these findings add further credence to the importance of reducing chloramines as much as possible.

Ship Ballast Water

All ocean-going vessels take on water to provide ballast and stability. It is usually taken on in coastal port areas and transported to the next port of call, where it may be discharged. The IMO (International Maritime Organisation) sets tough standards to treat all ballast water prior to discharge, and UV disinfection – in conjunction with filtration – is now one of the accepted methods of treatment.

Oil Drilling

The control of bacteria in injection water – the water injected back into an oil or gas reservoir to increase pressure and stimulate production – is vital in the oil and gas industry. Inadequate treatment can cause ‘souring’ of the reservoir with hydrogen sulphide gas or microbial induced corrosion of drilling equipment. Recent studies commissioned by Hanovia have shown that UV disinfection is effective at preventing bacterial contamination of injection water.

Conclusion

Meeting the increasingly rigorous hygiene standards required in the production of food, beverages and pharmaceuticals, as well water quality concerns in the leisure, aquaculture, shipping and oil drilling industries, is a real challenge. If improvements need to be made to plant and equipment, they need to bring quick returns on the investment and measurable improvements in product quality.

For manufacturers seeking to improve the quality of the end product, UV is an economic, realistic option. It is an established method of disinfecting drinking water throughout the world, and is now finding applications in many other industries.

UV disinfection systems are easy to install, with minimum disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 9 – 12 months, depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes and can be carried out by general maintenance staff.

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