Berson’s UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC Controller can Control up to Six UV Disinfection Chambers Simultaneously

New controller allows UV systems to precisely match customers’ requirements

Berson’s new UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC controller links to a UV disinfection system’s SCADA control system and allows users to set up and manage the UV system’s operating parameters to exactly match their requirements. The latest version of Berson’s UV-Tronic controller range, the UV-Tronic+ V5 is based on a rugged industrial PLC and with an RS485-based Modbus interface.

Berson’s UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC Controller can Control up to Six UV Disinfection Chambers Simultaneously

Berson’s UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC Controller can Control up to Six UV Disinfection Chambers Simultaneously

Older versions of the UV-Tronic already had the capacity to control multiple streams and treatment chambers, a particularly useful feature where treatment plants may have variable water parameters such as flow or transmittance as it allows shutdown of individual UV chambers when not required, reducing power consumption.

The new UV-Tronic+ V5 has enhanced features which makes it possible to individually control the power level of up to six UV disinfection chambers simultaneously to suit the flow conditions for each stream, thus further minimising power consumption.

In addition, the controller can be programmed to calculate the required power setting depending on whether it is validated to DVGW*, UVDGM** or Berson’s default dose control settings. Software is currently being written which will also allow it to operate to NWRI*** parameters. The device can control conventional electro-magnetic ballas as well as Berson’s own electronic ballast.

Additional new features include greatly extended monitoring and control via Modbus, increased manual control functionality to ease maintenance and servicing, and the capacity to individually calibrate UV sensors when running in DVGW mode. A modem can also be used to provide remote monitoring and diagnosis and for software upgrades.

In addition, when UV monitors on the inner wall of the UV chamber register a fall in the UV level, the UV-Tronic+ V5 is designed to trigger automatic wipers on the quartz sleeves protecting the UV lamps. The wipers remove any built-up deposits on the sleeves, ensuring uninterrupted protection against microbial contamination. A major benefit of automated wiping means no chemicals are required for cleaning, an especially important feature when it comes to drinking water disinfection.

“The UV-Tronic+ V5 is a very useful feature of the Berson UV system,” comments Bob Clifforde, an Electrical Engineer at Cambridge Water in the UK who uses the new system. “By allowing us to control each UV chamber individually it not only greatly simplifies operations but has also reduced our operating costs.”

Berson UV is one of the few non-German UV system suppliers capable of providing a complete range of UV systems with capacities between 10 – 10,000 m3/hour, certified to the newest German DVGW norm, W294, Part 1, 2 & 3 – the highest standard currently possible in the world.

* DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) is the body responsible for industry self-regulation in the German water and gas and water supply industry and its technical rules are the basis for safety and reliability.

** USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM). The validation certifies the use of the systems for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR).

*** National Water Research Institute (www.nwri-usa.org) / American Water Works Research Foundation (www.waterresearchfoundation.org).

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UV Disinfection Specialist Berson Appoints Paul Buijs as new Managing Director

UV disinfection specialist Berson has appointed Paul Buijs its new Managing Director. Paul, who has over 15 years’ experience in the water treatment industry, joins Berson from Global Membrains, a water industry consultancy with business throughout Europe and Middle East, where he most recently served as Director. Prior to Global Membrains* he worked for GE Water and Process Technologies, GE Betz and Kiwa Water Research, all companies focused on water treatment using various technologies.

UV Disinfection Specialist Berson Appoints Paul Buijs as new Managing Director

UV Disinfection Specialist Berson Appoints Paul Buijs as new Managing Director

Photo: http://www.halmapr.com/berson/PaulBuijs.jpg (725 KB)

Paul has a Masters Degree in Chemical Engineering from the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. He also received a number of leadership and service awards from GE Water and was granted a patent for a new process to improve ultrafiltration performance.

Commenting on his appointment Paul said, “With many exciting developments under way I am excited to be part of Berson’s continuing growth. I believe that the company’s strong scientific knowledge base and extensive field experience worldwide means we are exceptionally well placed to expand the use of our world-beating UV water treatment technology.”

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Berson UV Chosen to Disinfect Aruba’s Drinking Water and Wastewater

Caribbean island opts for UV instead of chlorine as part of its ‘anti chemical’ policy

The Caribbean island of Aruba situated just off the coast of Venezuela has a semi-arid climate, caused by the north-westerly trade winds dropping most of their rain on the Windward Islands to the north-east. A popular tourist destination because of its dry, sunny climate, the island has experienced rapid growth in recent years, putting severe stress on its water supply system. As there are virtually no naturally occurring sources of fresh water on the island, it relies exclusively on the world’s second largest desalination plant to supply its population with potable water.

Berson UV Chosen to Disinfect Aruba’s Drinking Water and Wastewater

Berson UV Chosen to Disinfect Aruba’s Drinking Water and Wastewater

Photo 1: http://halmapr.com/berson/aruba_2.jpg (739 KB)
(Photo caption: A Berson InLine UV disinfection system installed on one of Aruba’s drinking water storage tanks)

The desalination plant is situated in Balashi, the site of old gold mill ruins and is located inland of Aruba’s capital, Oranjestad. Operated by Water-En Energiebedrijf Aruba N.V.  (W.E.B.), the plant was commissioned in February 2000 and produces over 40 million litres (over 11 million gallons) of water per day. Occupying a space equivalent to half the length of a football or soccer field, the plant consists of plate heat exchangers in titanium installed in a vessel of considerable size. It was constructed in three 20 metre (67 foot) sections in Germany and shipped to Aruba, where it was assembled.

As part of its ‘non-chemical’ approach to water treatment, W.E.B. opted to use ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology instead of chlorine to provide an additional treatment step for drinking water prior to distribution. UV technology from Dutch company Berson UV-techniek was selected for the project. Berson was chosen not just because it is based in the ‘home country’ (Aruba is an autonomous region within the Kingdom of the Netherlands) but because it is at the forefront of UV technology for municipal applications globally.

Berson’s customer service manager Danny van Kuringen with some of the Berson InLine UV disinfection systems at Aruba’s Balashi water treatment facility

Berson’s customer service manager Danny van Kuringen with some of the Berson InLine UV disinfection systems at Aruba’s Balashi water treatment facility

Photo 2: http://halmapr.com/berson/aruba_1.jpg (842 KB)
(Photo caption: Berson’s customer service manager Danny van Kuringen with some of the Berson InLine UV disinfection systems at Aruba’s Balashi water treatment facility)

A total of ten Berson InLine+ UV systems are currently installed on the island, with more planned. Seven are used for disinfecting drinking water prior to distribution and a further two are used for treating wastewater prior to discharge. In addition, one system is used by the Dr Horatio Hospital to treat incoming drinking water as a precaution against Legionella.

Drinking water treatment

Following the desalination process the water passes through five UV systems before being transported to a number of large storage tanks situated at elevated locations around the island. The five UV units are the last step in the treatment process prior to distribution. Each UV unit disinfects 400m3 of water per hour, rising to 600m3/h during peak flow conditions. No chlorine is used at any stage of water the treatment process. The UV systems are controlled by Berson’s ECtronic+ and UVtronic+ microprocessors – allowing the units to be linked to control systems.

Two of the storage tanks situated around the island are also fitted with UV systems, which provide an additional disinfection step prior to distribution. One of these UV-fitted storage tanks is situated in the harbour and supplies cruise ships with UV treated drinking water. It is expected that all the tanks will eventually be fitted with UV systems.

Commenting on the installations, Project Manager Mr Ruiz says, “Chlorine was originally considered as an alternative to UV but was rejected after concerns over costs and safety. W.E.B. also has an anti-chemical policy”.

Wastewater treatment

Aruba is currently served by two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), one at Parkietenbos on the west coast and another Zeewijk on the east of the island. The Parkietenbos WWTP processes wastewater brought in by septic tank trucks from the whole of the island, while the Zeewijk WWTP treats wastewater from San Nicolas, Aruba’s second largest city, located in the south of the island.

Both WWTPs use UV as a final treatment step prior to discharge, following various filtration and treatment steps including grit and fat removal, screening, SBR (sequencing batch reactor) biological treatment and tertiary disc-type filtration. The Berson InLine+ UV system at Parkietenbos treats up to 75m3/hour while that at Zeewijk treats up to 200m3/hour.

The quality of the final effluent from both sites is so good that some of the wastewater is used to irrigate two golf courses on the island.

Strong interest in UV for other applications

Commenting on the UV installations, Berson’s Managing Director Andrew Clark says, “Since we delivered the UV systems to W.E.B. there has been a lot of interest in our non-chemical water treatment technology from other industry sectors on the island. In particular, a lot of businesses are interested in using UV-treated wastewater for hosing down their buildings. It is very dusty on Aruba, so keeping the exterior of buildings clean is actually a bit of a problem – using desalinated potable water is expensive and wasteful, so high quality effluent is a viable alternative.”

Berson is currently one of the few non-German UV system suppliers capable of providing a complete range of UV systems with capacities between 10 – 10,000 m3/hour, certified to the latest German DVGW*** norm, W294, Part 1, 2 & 3 – the highest standard currently possible in the world. The systems are also fully validated in accordance with the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM).

* Biochemical oxygen demand
** Total suspended solids
*** DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) is the body responsible for industry self-regulation in the German water and gas and water supply industry and its technical rules are the basis for safety and reliability.

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Berson toont UV-Technologie op Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs

Berson UV-techniek introduceert dit voorjaar haar leidende UV-desinfectie technologie op de Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs. De UV-systemen van Berson UV-Techniek worden wereldwijd gebruikt voor het desinfecteren van drinkwater en afvalwater zonder gebruik van chemische desinfectie-middelen.

Berson toont UV-Technologie op Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs

Berson toont UV-Technologie op Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs

Het in Nuenen nabij Eindhoven gevestigde Berson is gespecialiseerd in municipale toepassingen van haar UV-Technologie en zal haar InLine, InLine+ en ProLine+ reeks van UV-reactoren tonen met capaciteiten tot 5000 m3/uur. Deze CFD-geoptimaliseerde UV-reactoren hebben een uniek ontwerp waarbij de middendruk UV-lampen onder een hoek van 90o dwars op de waterstroom staan. Dit garandeert niet alleen een effectievere verdeling en distributie van UV-straling naar de passerende vloeistof, maar ook een zeer compacte bouw, waardoor installatie en onderhoud vergemakkelijkt worden. Veel InLine-reactoren zijn gevalideerd volgens de protocollen van DVGW, Ö-norm, US-EPA (drinkwater) en NWRI (afvalwaterdesinfectie tbv hergebruik)

Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs is drie dagen lang hèt trefpunt waar ondernemers en relaties uit de waterbranche elkaar ontmoeten. De vakbeurs richt zich op waterbehandeling, watermanagement en watertechnologie. In een sfeervolle, verkoopbevorderende ambiance kunt u zaken doen, informatie uitwisselen, contacten leggen en ideeën opdoen.

Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs
16 – 18 maart, 2010
Evenementenhal Gorinchem
Nederland

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Berson Showing its World-Leading UV Technology at Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs

Berson UV-techniek will be exhibiting its world-leading UV disinfection technology at Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs in Gorinchem, the Netherlands, this March. Berson’s UV systems are used worldwide for the non-chemical disinfection of drinking water and wastewater.

Berson Showing its World-Leading UV Technology at Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs

Berson Showing its World-Leading UV Technology at Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs

Based in the Netherlands, Berson specialises in municipal applications and will be showing its InLine, InLine+ and ProLine+ ranges of closed-vessel UV disinfection systems. Capable of treating water and wastewater flows as high as 5000 m3/hour, they have a unique design where the UV lamps are angled at 90o to the water flow. This not only means a more effective distribution of UV light to the passing fluid, it also means a much smaller footprint, allowing easy installation and servicing.

Aqua Nederland Vakbeurs
16 – 18 March, 2010
Evenementehal Gorinchem
Gorinchem
The Netherlands

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Berson UV gekozen voor desinfectie drinkwater en grijs water op Aruba

Caribisch eiland kiest voor UV in plaats van chloor

Op het Caribische eiland Aruba zijn tien InLine UV-desinfectiesystemen van Berson geïnstalleerd. Acht daarvan worden gebruikt voor het desinfecteren van drinkwater en twee voor het behandelen van grijs water* voor afvoer. Het eiland koos voor UV in plaats van chloor in het kader van waterzuivering ‘zonder chemicaliën’.

Customer service manager Danny van Kuringen met enkele van de Berson InLine UV-desinfectiesystemen van de Balashi-waterzuiveringsinstallatie op Aruba

Customer service manager Danny van Kuringen met enkele van de Berson InLine UV-desinfectiesystemen van de Balashi-waterzuiveringsinstallatie op Aruba

Foto 1: http://halmapr.com/berson/aruba_1.jpg (842KB)
(Fotobijschrift : Customer service manager Danny van Kuringen met enkele van de Berson InLine UV-desinfectiesystemen van de Balashi-waterzuiveringsinstallatie op Aruba)

Op de Balashi-waterzuiveringsinstallatie, bij de Gold Mill Ruins nabij Oranjestad, de hoofdstad van Aruba, zijn vijf Berson UV-systemen geïnstalleerd. De Balashi-installatie, geëxploiteerd door W.E.B. Aruba N.V., verschaft drinkwater en elektriciteit aan de eilandbewoners en bedrijven. Verder bevindt zich daar de op één na grootste ontziltingsinstallatie ter wereld. Aruba heeft een semi-aride klimaat en ontzilting is daarom noodzakelijk om de toenemende bevolking te kunnen voorzien van voldoende water.

Na het ontziltingsproces stroomt het water door de UV-systemen voor het wordt overgebracht naar zeven opslagtanks op hoog gelegen punten op het eiland. De UV-systemen, die buiten geïnstalleerd zijn en worden bediend met ECtronic-controllers, desinfecteren elk 400m³ water per uur. Op piektijden neemt dit toe tot 600m³/u. Bij het zuiveren van het water wordt nooit chloor gebruikt.

Een Berson InLine UV-desinfectiesysteem geïnstalleerd op één van de opslagtanks voor drinkwater op Aruba

Een Berson InLine UV-desinfectiesysteem geïnstalleerd op één van de opslagtanks voor drinkwater op Aruba

Foto 2: http://halmapr.com/berson/aruba_2.jpg (739KB)
(Fotobijschrift2: een Berson InLine UV-desinfectiesysteem geïnstalleerd op één van de opslagtanks voor drinkwater op Aruba)

W.E.B.-Project Manager dhr. Ruiz zegt over de installatie: “Aanvankelijk werd als alternatief voor UV chloor overwogen, maar dit werd afgewezen in verband met zorgen omtrent kosten en veiligheid. Bovendien zet W.E.B. Aruba zich ervoor in om chemicaliën zoveel mogelijk uit te bannen.”

Twee van de zeven opslagtanks op het eiland zijn ook voorzien van Inline UV-systemen van Berson, zodat het water voor verspreiding nog eens extra gezuiverd wordt. Naar verwachting zullen uiteindelijk alle tanks worden voorzien van een UV-systeem. Eén van de opslagtanks bevindt zich in de haven en levert met UV behandeld drinkwater aan cruiseschepen.

Naast het desinfecteren van drinkwater worden twee Berson UV-systemen ook gebruikt voor het behandelen van grijs water. Op elk van de twee zuiveringsinstallaties voor afvalwater op het eiland is een systeem aangebracht. Met het behandelde grijze water worden de twee golfbanen van het eiland beregend. Ook het Dr. Horacio Hospital op het eiland maakt gebruik van UV-technologie.

“Op het eiland bestaat veel belangstelling voor onze UV-systemen, met name bij bedrijven die grijs water willen gebruiken om gebouwen schoon te spuiten,” vertelt Customer Service Manager Danny van Kuringen van Berson. “Het is heel stoffig op Aruba, dus hebben veel bedrijven er moeite mee de buitenkant van hun gebouwen schoon te houden. Verder hebben we onlangs één van onze nieuwe InLine+ UV-systemen geleverd aan het vliegveld Reina Beatrix Airport voor de desinfectie van drinkwater.”

De compacte InLine UV-systemen van Berson maken gebruik van middendruk MultiWave-UV-lampen. Deze stralen een breed spectrum UV-golflengten uit met een zeer hoge energiewaarde, waardoor micro-organismen volledig en permanent worden uitgeschakeld. Doordat de lampen zo klein zijn, kunnen ze dwars op de stroom worden geplaatst. Dit zorgt voor efficiëntere desinfectie, lager drukverlies en bovendien is het hele systeem kleiner.

Berson UV is één van de weinige leveranciers van UV-systemen die een compleet assortiment UV-systemen kan aanbieden met capaciteiten tussen 10 en 10.000 m³ /uur, gecertificeerd volgens de meest recente Duitse DVGW**-norm, W294, deel 1, 2 & 3. Dat is momenteel wereldwijd de hoogst mogelijke norm. De systemen zijn ook volledig gecontroleerd volgens de USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM) en recentelijk is het NWRI/AWWa certificaat verkregen voor toepassing bij afvalwater-hergebruik

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Berson InLine+ Closed Vessel UV Disinfection Systems Get UVDGM Validation For Drinking Water Use

Berson’s InLine+ series of UV water disinfection systems are now fully validated in accordance with the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM). The validation certifies the use of the systems for the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) released by EPA in November 2006.

InLine+ UVDGM validation

“We are delighted to have achieved this important validation as it confirms our position at the forefront of UV disinfection technology for drinking water and wastewater applications,” commented Berson’s Managing Director Andrew Clark. “From the time we supplied some of the very first UV drinking water disinfection units over 20 years ago we have been actively involved in providing communities around the globe with safe, reliable UV disinfection and this latest validation continues our long tradition of investing in the industry. We are proud that our state-of-the-art UV disinfection systems meet the very latest and most stringent drinking water standards. I would also like to add that Berson products are no longer subject to any Cryptosporidium or Giardia Patent fees for UV disinfection applications worldwide.”

The testing was conducted by Carollo Engineers at its Portland, Oregon validation facility and covered a three-dimensional matrix of UV transmittance, flow and reduction equivalent dose, using both T1 and MS-2 phage test surrogates.  Dose delivery equations were derived for all reactors that predict T1 and MS-2 RED as a function of flow, UV-T, UV sensor readings, and microbe UV sensitivity.

Berson UV is also one of the few UV system suppliers capable of providing a complete range of UV systems with capacities between 10 – 10,000 m3/hour, certified to the newest German DVGW* norm, W294, Part 1, 2 & 3 – the highest standard currently possible in the world.

* DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) is the body responsible for industry self-regulation in the German water and gas and water supply industry and its technical rules are the basis for safety and reliability.

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Wastewater Reuse Using UV Disinfection

Introduction

The UV disinfection industry has experienced tremendous growth over the last 20 years.  The development of new UV technologies over this period is a perfect example of an industry investing to meet market demand – in this case demand for an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly way to disinfect wastewater for reuse.

Anthem, Arizona - watewater reuse

The acceptance of UV disinfection at wastewater plants treating in excess of one billion gallons daily is proof that UV is no longer an ‘emerging’ technology, but rather an accepted technology to be used routinely by engineers to safeguard human health and alleviate environmental pressures.

Wastewater reuse has been practiced in various forms for decades, with the United States leading the way in reuse research. It is now a major issue in the US where large areas of the Western and Southern states experience chronic water shortages. The problem is becoming more acute with many of the most arid states, such as Nevada and Arizona, experiencing rapid increases in their urban populations since the 1990s. Large-scale reuse projects are now also being considered in other water-poor regions of the world such as Australia, southern Europe and China.

New Technology

The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling has vastly improved UV equipment manufacturers’ ability to predict with confidence the level of treatment required for wastewater using their proprietary equipment. All manufacturers will soon use this tool to optimize the dose delivery of their reactors and minimize energy costs. Also, as manufacturers develop and improve optimized UV reactors, they will be able to validate the designs using USEPA, NWRI or European validation protocols.

Conventional UV lamp technology will also improve over the coming years, with medium pressure lamps continuing to see gains in energy efficiency, lamp life and power density, and Quartz coating techniques extending lamp life to well over 12,000 hours.

Concerns

A major concern to the UV industry is the issue of microbial reactivation – the apparent ability of some microorganisms to repair the damage done to their DNA by UV, reactivating their ability to infect.  DNA repair can occur in a closed (dark) system, but is more likely in open systems under direct sunlight (photoreactivation). The dose level and lamp type seem to affect the degree of reactivation, with low pressure (single wavelength) UV lamps appearing to be more susceptible to photoreactivation than medium pressure (multi-wavelength) lamps (see reference 1). A much larger research effort into the area of photoreactivation is required and will most likely be forthcoming over the next five years.

A significant amount of research has also targeted the question of UV disinfection by-products (DBPs), specifically the most common water constituents such as chlorine, bromide, nitrate, ozone, natural organic matter and iron. At normal UV disinfection doses no significant disinfection by-products have been shown to form.

Benefits of UV for the reuse market

The most common method of wastewater disinfection for reuse has long been chlorination. Despite chlorine’s impressive track record, concerns regarding DBPs and, more recently, disinfection performance with respect to pathogen inactivation, are driving the conversion from chlorine disinfection to other disinfection methods such as UV, which does not produce any DBPs.

Closed vessel UV systems are easy to install within existing pipework, so there is minimal disruption to plant operation. Day to day operation is simple and only minor maintenance is needed. The only regular requirement is changing the UV lamps and wiper rings once a year, a straightforward operation that can be carried out by on-site personnel.

UV systems for wastewater reuse are also validated to much higher doses than drinking water systems, according to protocols established by the National Water Research Institute (NWRI). Drinking water type product validation, with the accompanying rigor, will emerge as the dominant method of assessing suitability for these critical applications. The ability to prevent photo repair will also emerge as key.

Applications for wastewater reuse

Potential applications for wastewater reuse are extremely wide-ranging and include any instance where water is needed for non-potable or indirect potable use. The most popular and widespread use is for agricultural irrigation, with the USA leading the way, but with China and a number of Australian states also making significant progress. Other irrigation uses include landscape and recreational applications such as golf courses, parks, and lawns.

Reclaimed wastewater is also used for groundwater recharge applications such as aquifer storage and recovery or preventing saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Other uses include toilet and urinal flushing, fire fighting, foundation stabilization in the construction industry and artificial snow generation. In all these applications, reuse wastewater relieves the burden on existing municipal potable supplies.

The Singapore Water Reclamation Facility (NEWater), a joint initiative between the Singapore Public Utilities Board (PUB) and the Singapore Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, is a well-known example of water reuse on a large scale. NEWater is treated, used water that has undergone a stringent purification and treatment process using advanced dual-membrane (microfiltration and reverse osmosis) filtration and UV disinfection. The primary use of NEWater is for wafer fabrication processes and other non-potable applications in manufacturing processes. However, the PUB also uses NEWater for indirect potable use by mixing and blending it with raw water in reservoirs prior to conventional treatment at waterworks for supply to the public for potable use. According its website, the PUB currently adds 3 mgd of NEWater (about 1% of total daily water consumption) into raw water reservoirs, and the amount will be increased progressively to about 2.5% of total daily water consumption by 2011.

Case study – Arizona, USA

Two golf courses in the town of Anthem in Arizona, USA are using UV-treated wastewater for irrigation. Founded just over 10 years ago Anthem, a town just north of Phoenix, now has a population of over 40,000. As part of its rapid expansion the town recently installed three closed chamber, medium pressure UV system from Berson’s US sister company Aquionics to disinfect its wastewater. This allows the town to not only meet increased demands in its water and wastewater treatment capacity, but also to exceed the output quality standards.

“The wastewater is treated by three Berson InLine systems handling a combined flow of three million gallons (over 11.3 million litres) per day,” explained Anthem’s wastewater Foreman Jeff Marlow. “They work in conjunction with microfiltration and nitrification/denitrification. We chose the Berson UV systems because they are optimised to meet the Arizona Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (AZPDES) Permit Program,” he added.

The two local golf courses currently use a combination of UV treated wastewater and fresh river water for irrigation, but with increase in population, it is expected that the courses will soon be using wastewater exclusively.

An automatic cleaning mechanism keeps the lamp sleeves free of organic deposits for consistent UV dosing. Each chamber is also fitted with UV monitors to measure actual UV dose for record keeping. With the addition of an optional online transmittance monitor, real time transmittance values are used to automatically adjust the dose pacing of the UV system.

Conclusion

The UV industry has matured considerably over the last decade and is now highly regulated and dominated by the world’s major water technology companies. Conventional UV technologies have been field tested and now have considerable track records in a wide range of applications. Uncertainties surrounding regulations, royalties, technology and engineering have decreased and acceptance of UV is expected to grow rapidly over the next 20 years. Conventional UV designs have been greatly aided by CFD, which will be used as a routine sizing tool for future designs.

The stage is now set for dramatic growth in the wastewater reuse market, especially with increasing populations putting even more pressure on already overstretched water resources in many regions of the world. Tighter limitations on pollution discharge will also play an important role in the development of this technology.

References:
1. Hu J. Y.,  Chu, S. N.,  Quek, P. H., Feng, Y. Y.,  and Tan, X. L. (2005). Repair and regrowth of Escherichia coli after low- and medium-pressure ultraviolet disinfection. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, Vol. 5, No. 5, 101-108.

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Cambridge Water Opts For Berson UV Disinfection Technology With UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC Controller

Cambridge Water plc in the United Kingdom has recently installed three Berson InLine+ DVGW*-validated medium pressure UV disinfection units at the remote Euston drinking water pumping station in Suffolk. Between them the three units treat up to 724m3/hour of water, which is then delivered via a 55km delivery main to storage reservoirs that serve the city of Cambridge.

Euston Pumping Station

An important feature of the Berson UV system provided to Cambridge Water is its UV-Tronic+ V5 PLC controller, the latest version of Berson’s UV-Tronic controller range. Based on a rugged industrial PLC and with an RS485-based Modbus interface, the UV-Tronic+ V5 links to the site’s SCADA control system and allows users to set up and manage the UV system’s operating parameters to exactly match their requirements.

Older versions of the UV-Tronic already had the capacity to control multiple streams and treatment chambers, a particularly useful feature where a treatment plant has variable water parameters such as flow or transmittance, as it allows shutdown of individual UV chambers when not required, reducing power consumption. In addition, when UV monitors on the inner wall of the UV chamber register a fall in the UV level, the UV-Tronic is designed to trigger automatic wipers on the quartz sleeves protecting the UV lamps. The wipers remove any built-up deposits on the sleeves, ensuring uninterrupted protection against microbial contamination. A major benefit of automated wiping means no chemicals are required for cleaning, an especially important feature when it comes to drinking water disinfection.

The new UV-Tronic+ V5 has enhanced features which now makes it possible to individually control the power level of up to six UV disinfection chambers simultaneously to suit the flow conditions for each stream, thus further minimising power consumption. Additional new features include greatly extended monitoring and control via Modbus, increased manual control functionality to ease maintenance and servicing, and the capacity to individually calibrate UV sensors when running in DVGW mode. A built-in modem can also be used to provide remote monitoring and diagnosis and for software upgrades.

“The UV-Tronic+ V5 is a very useful feature of the Berson UV system,” commented Bob Clifforde, Cambridge Water’s Electrical Engineer. “By allowing us to control each UV chamber individually it not only greatly simplifies operations but has also reduced our operating costs.”

Providing primary disinfection followed by marginal chlorination using hypochlorite, the UV system was installed as an alternative to chlorine-only disinfection. “We selected UV for this remote location as it is so much more convenient than transporting chlorine from our Cambridge depot, over 50km away. There are savings too over the cost of buying and transporting the chlorine gas,” added Bob.

Berson UV is one of the few non-German UV system suppliers capable of providing a complete range of UV systems with capacities between 10 – 10,000 m3/hour, certified to the newest German DVGW norm, W294, Part 1, 2 & 3 – the highest standard currently possible in the world.

* DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) is the body responsible for industry self-regulation in the German water and gas and water supply industry and its technical rules are the basis for safety and reliability.

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Different Approach, Same Goal: A Comparison Between European and US Drinking Water Regulations

Introduction

UV disinfection technology is one of the fastest growing water treatment technologies today.  The development of new UV technologies over this period has been a perfect example of an industry investing to meet market demand – in this case demand for an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly disinfection technology. An increasing awareness of harmful disinfection byproducts from traditional chemical disinfection solutions, combined with technological advances in component design and manufacture, process control, hydraulics and microbiology have resulted in UV systems that are as reliable and cost efficient as their chemical equivalents.  With the implementation of standard methods for the testing, design and operation of UV systems have now given the technology the transparency needed for wide scale adoption globally.

With a mandate to ensure public water systems provide safe drinking water to their users, many governmental regulatory bodies around the world have adopted UV disinfection standards.  The vast majority of these drinking water standards reference either the German UV Devices for the Disinfection for Drinking water Supply standard, commonly known as DVGW (Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas und Wassserfaches), or the US Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual for the Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule standard, known as the UVDGM (Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual).

While the goal of both standards is to ensure safe drinking water, their approach and  outcomes, in terms of operating equipment, is very different. An understanding of these two approaches, their similarities and differences, is therefore helpful to designers, regulators and users alike.

Overview of the DVGW Standard

The German Gas and Water Association (DGVW) first published UV guidelines in 1994, following up with more formal regulations in 1997.  The most recent update, known as Work Sheet 94, issued in 2006, has been implemented as part of the German Drinking Water regulations, thus making compliance a legal requirement in Germany. Along with similar standards established in Austria (ÖNorm 2001 and ÖNorm 2003), these standards are recognized throughout the world and form the basis of many other national standards.

The core ethos of the DVGW (and ÖNorm) standard is that a UV system should be proven to continuously deliver a minimum germicidal fluence of 40mJ/cm2 under all operational conditions. The measured UV Intensity must therefore remain above a specified value for all ranges of flow and UV- transmittance that will occur during operation. The justification for selecting 40mJ/cm2 as an appropriate UV fluence level is based upon the knowledge that many harmful pathogens can be inactivated up to a level of 4-log by exposure to a UV fluence of 40mJ/cm2 (see figure 1).

Figure 1

Figure 1: UV Fluence requirements to ensure 4-log inactivation of multiple pathogens

So as to ensure that a given UV system is able to provide the 40mJ/cm2 disinfection level, the DVGW standard defines a detailed microbiological examination method, or bioassay.  Tests are performed by simulating operating conditions at full scale using B. subtillis spores as a pathogenic surrogate. Subsequent operating UV systems must be constructed and operated under identical conditions, ensuring that at least one fixed UV sensor continuously monitors the germicidal radiation, ensuring it remains above the specified minimum.

The structure of the DVGW standard, shown in Table 1, allows different stakeholders to easily access the information they require. Operators and engineers can look to Part 1 to assist with the planning of both technical and commercial factors of UV systems. The information in Parts 2 and 3, on the other hand, provides manufacturers, testing agencies and regulators valuable details regarding design and validation.

Part 1

Requirements on quality, function and
operation

Part 2

Testing of quality, function and
operation

Part 3

Measurement port and sensors for the
radiometric monitoring of UV disinfection systems, requirements, testing and
calibration

Table 1: Structure of the DVGW standard

One key benefit of the latest DVGW standard is that is harmonizes the allowed UV sensor types with the Austrian standard (although specific sensor calibration processes are yet to be fully implemented).

Some people have pointed to the lack of targeting of specific pathogens as a limiting factor to the implementation of this standard. In addition, as some pathogens, such a Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are inactivated at significantly lower UV fluence levels than 40 mJ/cm2, the capital and operational costs of DVGW compliant UV systems can be high for very large flows. On the plus side, while still keeping the 40mJ/cm2 disinfection level, the 2006 DVGW standard does allow for the generation of performance curves, allowing the operator to limit energy wasting overdosing situations.

The DVGW standard has formed the backbone of drinking water regulations worldwide for almost 15 years and despite of its limitations, it will continue to provide valuable information to operators, engineers, manufacturers and regulators with regards to the design, testing and operation of UV systems for the protection of public drinking water supplies.

Overview of USEPA UVDGM Guideline

While the German DVGW standard states its validity for all water disinfection facilities using UV treatment and covers a broad range of target pathogens, the USEPA’s Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM) is more limited in its scope. It is specifically designed to cover all public water systems that use UV disinfection for the treatment of surface water (or groundwater under the direct influence of surface water). More specifically it assists with the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR), requiring additional treatment based on source water Cryptosporidium concentrations and current treatment practices, where UV disinfection is one treatment option.

In summary, the UVDGM outlines how compliance to the very specific inactivation targets for specific pathogens can be achieved, in accordance with the water source and existing treatment employed. Table 2, (Table 1.4 within the UVDGM) shows the specific UV dose requirements for the specifically targeted pathogens.

Table 2

Table 2: Summary of Microbial and Disinfection Byproduct Rules

One of the core premises of the UVDGM is that UV drinking water systems should be designed, tested and operated in accordance with the targeting of specific pathogens. As such it approaches equipment validation, sizing and operation in a different way than the DVGW standard. The choice of a surrogate test microorganism is not specified. Instead, uncertainty factors are used to account for differences in dose response characteristics.  Additional uncertainty factors are used to account for further experimental variations as well as for UV sensors.

As with the DVGW standard, the UVDGM guideline structures information in order to allow stakeholders ease of access (see Table 3). The threefold stated objectives are summarized as follows:

– Provide operators and designers technical information on selecting, designing and operating compliant UV installations
– Provide tools and guidance to regulators in assessing UV installations throughout design, start-up and operation
– Provide manufacturers and testing agencies standards for design and validation.

Chapter 1 & 2

Introduction and overview of disinfection

Chapter 3 & 4

Planning analysis and design considerations
for UV facilities

Chapter 5

Validation of UV reactors

Chapter 6

Start-up and operations of UV facilities

Table 3: Structure of the UVDGM

The UVDGM does recognize both the German DVGW and Austrian ÖNorm standards, granting compliant UV systems a 3-log Cryptosporidium and Giardia inactivation credit.  In practice, however, such systems are over-sized when compared with those that have undergone specific UVDGM validation testing.

The equipment validation and operational verification methods outlined in the UVDGM provide a robust, transparent basis for public drinking water UV systems targeting specific pathogens. Together with the draft 2003 guidelines, they have driven the expansion of the use of UV as a safe disinfection technology both in the US and, increasingly, globally.

Summary

Expanding their influence beyond their national borders, both the German DVGW standard and the USEPA UVDGM have played important parts in helping UV disinfection technology become one of the fastest growing water treatment technologies globally.

Although both standards seek to improve the safety of public water supplies, the latest revisions of the two methods take different approaches, with significant differences in the subsequent capital and operating costs, even when comparing identical UV system designs.

It is hoped that by explaining the similarities and differences, both technical and commercial, this article provides stakeholders with much useful information for the planning, designing, validating and operating UV systems for drinking water applications.

References:

1. DVGW (2006).  UV Devices for the Disinfection for Drinking water Supply – Parts 1, 2 and Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas und Wassserfaches, Bonn, Germany.

2. USEPA (2006). Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidance Manual for the Final Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule.  EPA 815-R-06-007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, USA.

Kolch, Andreas (2007).  UV Disinfection of Drinking Water – the new  DVGW Work Sheet 94 Parts 1-3.  IUVA News, Volume 9/No.2, June

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